Avatar and Bougainville: A Parallel History?

When I first watched Avatar, it was mooted to me that James Cameron had quite possibly publicly demonstrated his personal opionion on war, the US, Iraq, and of course oil. And then I read Omar Hamed’s article which undeniably ascerts that James Cameron created Avatar on the basis of the Bougainville conflict – a scenario that has resulted in an interesting article, of which I have included exercpts from.

Hamed claims that the highest grossing film of all time to date has blatant allusions to the historical drama of Bougainville that happened in our backyard 13 years ago. He states that the film’s names, plot and characters are almost direct references to the 1997 Bougainville crisis yet no one seems to have drawn the dots between science fiction and South Pacific fact.

Many people will be familiar with the story of Avatar. The story opens 150 years in the future. A human mining corporation, RDA, has come five light years from Earth to the ecologically pristine jungle wilderness of the planet Pandora to mine the mineral unobtanium.

The richest deposits of unobtanium lie buried deep within the ground of Pandora and directly below the home of an alien race known as the Na’vi. Jake Sully, an ex-United States marine turned mercenary, is sent out to spy on the aliens by controlling a genetically engineered Avatar.

The security commander of the RDA, Colonel Miles Quaritch, encourages Sully to win the trust of the Na’vi and entice them to relocate away from their home in a giant tree, so the RDA can mine the unobtanium. Before Sully is able to persuade the Na’vi to leave Hometree, Colonel Quaritch attacks Hometree and destroys it.

Scientists’ Mutiny

Sully (in Avatar form) and a crew of RDA scientists mutiny and join the Na’vi in their struggle to rid Pandora of the RDA. The endgame battle revolves around the Na’vi defending the sacred tree of souls and the vital connection it provides to their races culture, memories and the Pandoran equivalent of earth goddess Gaia. By the end of the film the RDA are defeated and in one of the closing scenes Sully and armed Na’vi watch over a column of sullen RDA miners and their mercenaries as they are forcibly put aboard a space shuttle destined for earth.

The events that inspired Avatar writer and producer James Cameron can only have been the long guerrilla war that scarred the Bougainville for a decade between 1988 and 1998. The armed revolt began in 1988 when a group of indigenous rebels stole explosives and sabotaged the electricity supply to the environmentally destructive Panguna copper and gold mine, opened in 1964 and controlled by the CRA, an Australian subsidy of UK mining giant Rio Tinto.

The Panguna mine was opened on land stolen from the Nasioi tribe and tailings were dumped in a nearby river, eliminating aquatic life and forcing 800 tribespeople to lose their land. For a decade, the Pacific conflict festered between the eco-guerrilla Bougainville Revolutionary Army and the ill-disciplined Papua New Guinea Defence Force.

Tight Blockade

The conflict caused the deaths of between 10,000 and 20,000 Bougainvilleans, as Australian-supplied gunships strafed rebel camps and civilian villages and a tight blockade left the islanders often without food or medical supplies and allowed malaria and tuberculosis to spread with impunity. The end of the conflict came in 1997 when the Papua New Guinea government hired Sandline International, a British mercenary outfit led by former British Army Colonel Tim Spicer, to destroy the Bougainville Revolutionary Army.

Sandline and the PNG government signed a secret US$36 million contract for Sandline to provide a military solution to the Bougainville crisis that would see Sandline supply new helicopter gunships and troopships and using a mixed mercenary and PNGDF strike force, overwhelm the BRA. However, as Spicer’s mercenaries landed in PNG and began training the PNGDF in preparation for the assault on Bougainville to reopen Panguna, the Weekend Australian journalist Mary-Louise O’Callaghan broke the story, precipitating a diplomatic crisis between PNG and Australia and widespread disgust from PNG civil society.

In the wake of Callaghan’s expose, the commander of the PNGDF, Jerry Singirok, led an army coup to force the government to cancel the contract, step aside and call new elections. Singirok went on national radio to tell the country he could not allow the government to send foreign mercenaries armed with high-powered rocket launchers to murder in Bougainville and then disarmed the Sandline mercenaries and imprisoned Spicer. As the crisis grew and student protests in Port Moresby escalated the government reluctantly resigned and the Sandline soldiers were deported.

NZ-Brokered Ceasefire

In 1998, a New Zealand-brokered ceasefire was negotiated and eventually the Autonomous Bougainville Government established. The Panguna mine remains closed and in the hands of the indigenous landowners yet foreign corporate interest in reopening the mine continues.

Cameron’s plot is almost a direct adaptation of the Bougainville crisis with only the most minor adjustments. The full scale attack on Hometree in Avatar is a fair estimation of the havoc that Spicer’s proposed gunship assault to open Panguna would have had on the Nasioi tribe.

In the climactic battle, Jake Sully leads an alliance of Na’vi tribes aided by an uprising of Pandoran wildlife sent by their planets goddess of life, Eywa. Sully then lands on the back of the RDA space-shuttle turned carpet-bomber and uses a grenade to spin it off its flight path, thus preventing it from destroying the sacred tree of souls.

The scenario nicely symbolises how Jerry Singirok’s coup blew apart the PNG governments plan to rain death and destruction over Bougainville, in tandem with student and union protests escalating into anti-government riots and a parliamentary siege. This uprising eventually forced Sandline to divert the flight-plan of the world’s largest cargo plane, filled with grenade launchers, mortars and ammunition.

Singirok’s Coup

Cameron has infused his film Avatar with so many allusions to the Bougainville conflict that it beggars belief that only a few have picked up on it. For example, a quick reshuffle and a little transposing of the letters in “Miles Quaritch” and we get something very similar to “I am Tim Spicer”.

Coincidentally Cameron was developing the script a good 13 years ago – the same time as CNN and BBC were broadcasting to the world Singirok’s coup against the Sandline contract. The story of Bougainville’s bloody eco-revolution, the Sandline crisis and the overthrow of unscrupulous and corrupted PNG politicians by army revolt was always going to make an excellent film.

Cameron has done justice to a little-known chapter of history that happened right here in the South Pacific. Yet just last October Rio Tinto’s Bougainville company was exploring with the new Bougainville government the possibility of reopening the Panguna mine. Of course, the indigenous landowners still vehemently oppose the reopening of the mine. The sequel to Avatar may be coming sooner than many predicted.


This article was written by Omar Hamed and can be found here.

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~ by Tavurvur on February 13, 2010.

9 Responses to “Avatar and Bougainville: A Parallel History?”

  1. Please just ask yourself how many mines there are on the planet, mines that are placed where they shouldn’t be, displacing native populations, provoking fighting, outsider forces, destruction, and so on. Many!

    And mercenary forces? Many!

    Also consider that, very sad to say, the Bougainville crisis produced no significant world-wide (and especially North American) news. As a US resident who was desperate for news of Bougainville 1988-onwards, I can say that there’s almost no possibility that Cameron ever heard of Bougainville or ever based anything on it. Bougainville news wasn’t even buried in the back pages of the newspapers — it wasn’t there at all.

    This idea seems to be sweeping the Pacific web. It’s bizarre.

    Please consider how folk tales, plots, myths, whatever you want to call them, take only so many forms, as does “real” history.

  2. I think only James Cameron himself can confirm whether or not he ever heard of the Bougainville crisis and/or based anything on it. To say he had heard or had not heard anything is merely speculation – we really do not know.

    Despite this, Avatar does rally comparisons with the modern definition of ‘development’.


  3. The same stories are told over and over again, just with a different name, prize, location and characters. The movie really reinforces to me how the so called “weak” do really (re)inherit the(ir own) earth. The same struggles are reflected on the macro as well as the micro – on a global level and inside ourselves. Pity that we have such limited measuring sticks for ‘development’ and ‘success’, but hey, gives us all a reason for living a compassionate, genuine and authentic life. As they say, go and Peace and Prosper! ;o}

  4. Excellent post! My wife and I saw the movie recently. The parallels are stunning no matter whether the writer was influenced by a single event or the general trend. Our primary reaction to the movie, however, was a sense of foreboding. Here in Madang Province we presently have all of the ingredients on hand to cook up another Bougainville.

  5. Thanks for this Blog. I took up arms to fight CRA and RTZ in 1989 when Papua New Guinea government forces shot and killed my great grand mother. She was innocent and did not deserve such death. I took part in a war to protect my land so I can leave a positive legacy behind for my grandchildren. A world where they can enjoy nature and peace.
    I am in no way saying that Avatar is directly related to Bougainville or that Cameroon was inspired by the Bougainville situation..All I can say is that the climax of Avatar sees the Naa’vi people kick the mining giants out of Pandora. Tell me if there has been a case anywhere in the world where indigenous people successfully fought a war with bows and arrows and stopped a big mining operation run by one of the world’s coorperate giants. No where else in the world did this happen…except on Bougainville.
    I decided that the Bougainville armed struggle was justified after reading the book “River of Tears” way back in 1987 and yes I picked up a gun.

  6. Hi Jeffrey,

    I have to agree with you on the book “River of Tears” – it is a must read! The Bougainville Revoultion is no doubt the biggest blight in the history of PNG – and people will always debate the pros and cons of it for a long while to come.

    Jan made a good point in that it seems we may be facing the “Avatar” scenario all over again – Madang (MCC), the Sepik (Frieda Mine), et. al.

    On the topic of Panguna, click on the following link for a speech from John Momis regarding the future of Bougainville: https://garamut.wordpress.com/2010/06/18/png-conman-noah-musingku-takes-u-vistract-online/

  7. i am interested in taking up writing novels and have decided to research and write a novel on Bouganvile. actually my plots were intended to be centered on two soldiers, each on the opposite end of the battlefield.
    i am looking out to interview ex fighters on both side. Jeffrey would be one of them. My main interviewee that i thought of is the current Member of Parliament: Hon Belden Namah, who was a captain then and Walter Enuma who was a Major then. I am still searching out for a soldier from the BRA.

    My purpose is to contribute to documenting the emotions and feelings the soldiers went through all with the intention of defending their motherland. Atleast a documented story can serve as a means for the future generation to look back and understand the feelings of soldiers. how they took command, how they executed those commands and how they themselve lived through it.
    If any body can direct me to any of the above, i would be grateful.
    all possible help is invited


  8. There’s no parrallel while ned sits rusting out the front of an army disposal store, and Inga talks waffle whilst our equipment goes missing. A Royal Commission into Woodside is the measuring stick.

  9. […] Avatar and Bougainville: A Parallel History? « Tubuans. […]

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